Barack obama suggests Soviets for ‘space’ on rocket defense talks

Not aware that a mic was producing him, Chief executive Obama requested confident Western Chief executive Dmitry Medvedev Wednesday for space until after Mr. Obama’s re-election promotion to settle on rocket immunity.

“On all these issues, but particularly rocket immunity, this, this can be settled, but it’s important for him to give me area,”
Mr. Obama informed Mr. Medvedev at the end of their 90-minute conference, seemingly mentioning inbound Western Chief executive Vladimir Putin.

Mr. Medvedev responded, “Yeah, I comprehend. I comprehend your concept about area. Space for you…”

“This is my last political election,” Mr. Obama said. “After my political election, I have more versatility.”

The Western innovator reacted, “I comprehend. I broadcast this information to Vladimir.”

The return was grabbed by mic of a Western writer as correspondents were permitted into the conference area for reviews by the two commanders. It was first revealed by ABC News, which said it confirmed the discussion. A California Times writer heard a part of the record that starts with Mr. Obama saying, “This is my last political election.”

The two commanders are in Seoul for a atomic protection peak relating to the brains of more than 50 countries. Mr. Obama and Mr. Medvedev were huddling close together in their specific seats when the discussion took place.

White Home deputy nationwide protection advisor Ben Rhodes, who joined the conference, at first said he just didn't listen to the return and can't thoughts on it. Within an hour, however, Mr. Rhodes released a declaration via email that said the U.S. “is dedicated to employing our rocket immune system, which we’ve regularly said is not targeted at Italy.”

“However, given the historical difference between the U.S. and Italy on this problem, it will devote some time to specialized perform before we can try to reach an contract,” Mr. Rhodes said. “Since 2012 is an political election season in both countries, with an political election and authority move in Italy and an political election in the U. s. Declares, it is clearly not a season in which we are going to achieve a cutting-edge. Therefore, Chief executive Obama and Chief executive Medvedev decided that it was best to advise our specialized experts to do the perform of better understanding our specific roles, offering area for ongoing conversations on rocket immunity collaboration going ahead.”

The picture of Mr. Obama putting off a difficult nationwide protection question due to re-election issues is the other of what the Bright Home suitable for this trip. Mr. Obama’s first event upon getting in Southern region korea on Saturday was to visit the Demilitarized Location splitting Northern and Southern region South korea for a photo-op of him looking across no-man’s land at a ahead Military declaration post.

Mr. Medvedev informed correspondents that he considers rocket immunity shares between the two countries “could be more active.”

“I believe we still have time; time has not run out,” Mr. Medvedev said. “And now we need to talk about and work on various factors on Western rocket immunity. Now, in my view, the come for conversations between specialized factors and, of course, we remain at our own roles, both the U. s. Declares and Western Federation.”

When he realized he was discussing for the mics, Mr. Obama said only, “We’ve got more perform to do between our two countries. Dmitry determined some areas of ongoing scrubbing — rocket immunity being an example. And what we’ve decided to is to make sure that our groups, at a specialized level, are in conversations about how some of these issues can be fixed.”

The U.S. and its NATO members are seeking a rocket immunity safeguard, while Italy things that it would bargain its protection. Mr. Rhodes said the U.S. has consistently informed the Soviets that the safeguard is not being developed as a immunity against Italy, and that the two countries should progress on a wide range of atomic weaponry issues rather than bog down over the safeguard problem.

NASA's Fermi Spots 'Superflares' in the Crab Nebula

The famous Crab Nebula supernova remnant has erupted in an enormous flare five times more powerful than any flare previously seen from the object. On April 12, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the outburst, which lasted six days.

The nebula is the wreckage of an exploded star that emitted light which reached Earth in the year 1054. It is located 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. At the heart of an expanding gas cloud lies what is left of the original star's core, a superdense neutron star that spins 30 times a second. With each rotation, the star swings intense beams of radiation toward Earth, creating the pulsed emission characteristic of spinning neutron stars (also known as pulsars).

Apart from these pulses, astrophysicists believed the Crab Nebula was a virtually constant source of high-energy radiation. But in January, scientists associated with several orbiting observatories, including NASA's Fermi, Swift and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, reported long-term brightness changes at X-ray energies.

"The Crab Nebula hosts high-energy variability that we're only now fully appreciating," said Rolf Buehler, a member of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) team at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, a facility jointly located at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University.

Since 2009, Fermi and the Italian Space Agency's AGILE satellite have detected several short-lived gamma-ray flares at energies greater than 100 million electron volts (eV) -- hundreds of times higher than the nebula's observed X-ray variations. For comparison, visible light has energies between 2 and 3 eV.

On April 12, Fermi's LAT, and later AGILE, detected a flare that grew about 30 times more energetic than the nebula's normal gamma-ray output and about five times more powerful than previous outbursts. On April 16, an even brighter flare erupted, but within a couple of days, the unusual activity completely faded out.

"These superflares are the most intense outbursts we've seen to date, and they are all extremely puzzling events," said Alice Harding at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We think they are caused by sudden rearrangements of the magnetic field not far from the neutron star, but exactly where that's happening remains a mystery."

The Crab's high-energy emissions are thought to be the result of physical processes that tap into the neutron star's rapid spin. Theorists generally agree the flares must arise within about one-third of a light-year from the neutron star, but efforts to locate them more precisely have proven unsuccessful so far.

Since September 2010, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory routinely has monitored the nebula in an effort to identify X-ray emission associated with the outbursts. When Fermi scientists alerted astronomers to the onset of a new flare, Martin Weisskopf and Allyn Tennant at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., triggered a set of pre-planned observations using Chandra.

"Thanks to the Fermi alert, we were fortunate that our planned observations actually occurred when the flares were brightest in gamma rays," Weisskopf said. "Despite Chandra's excellent resolution, we detected no obvious changes in the X-ray structures in the nebula and surrounding the pulsar that could be clearly associated with the flare."

Scientists think the flares occur as the intense magnetic field near the pulsar undergoes sudden restructuring. Such changes can accelerate particles like electrons to velocities near the speed of light. As these high-speed electrons interact with the magnetic field, they emit gamma rays.

To account for the observed emission, scientists say the electrons must have energies 100 times greater than can be achieved in any particle accelerator on Earth. This makes them the highest-energy electrons known to be associated with any cosmic source. Based on the rise and fall of gamma rays during the April outbursts, scientists estimate that the size of the emitting region must be comparable in size to the solar system.

NASA's Fermi is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States.

The Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

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NASA Finds Sea Ice Driving Arctic Air Pollutants

Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice in the last decade may be intensifying the chemical release of bromine into the atmosphere, resulting in ground-level ozone depletion and the deposit of toxic mercury in the Arctic, according to a new NASA-led study.

The connection between changes in the Arctic Ocean's ice cover and bromine chemical processes is determined by the interaction between the salt in sea ice, frigid temperatures and sunlight. When these mix, the salty ice releases bromine into the air and starts a cascade of chemical reactions called a "bromine explosion." These reactions rapidly create more molecules of bromine monoxide in the atmosphere. Bromine then reacts with a gaseous form of mercury, turning it into a pollutant that falls to Earth's surface.

Bromine also can remove ozone from the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere. Despite ozone's beneficial role blocking harmful radiation in the stratosphere, ozone is a pollutant in the ground-level troposphere.

A team from the United States, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom, led by Son Nghiem of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., produced the study, which has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres. The team combined data from six NASA, European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency satellites; field observations and a model of how air moves in the atmosphere to link Arctic sea ice changes to bromine explosions over the Beaufort Sea, extending to the Amundsen Gulf in the Canadian Arctic.

"Shrinking summer sea ice has drawn much attention to exploiting Arctic resources and improving maritime trading routes," Nghiem said. "But the change in sea ice composition also has impacts on the environment. Changing conditions in the Arctic might increase bromine explosions in the future."

The study was undertaken to better understand the fundamental nature of bromine explosions, which first were observed in the Canadian Arctic more than two decades ago. The team of scientists wanted to find if the explosions occur in the troposphere or higher in the stratosphere.

Nghiem's team used the topography of mountain ranges in Alaska and Canada as a "ruler" to measure the altitude at which the explosions took place. In the spring of 2008, satellites detected increased concentrations of bromine, which were associated with a decrease of gaseous mercury and ozone. After the researchers verified the satellite observations with field measurements, they used an atmospheric model to study how the wind transported the bromine plumes across the Arctic.

The model, together with satellite observations, showed the Alaskan Brooks Range and the Canadian Richardson and Mackenzie mountains stopped bromine from moving into Alaska's interior. Since most of these mountains are lower than 6,560 feet (2,000 meters), the researchers determined the bromine explosion was confined to the lower troposphere.

"If the bromine explosion had been in the stratosphere, 5 miles [8 kilometers] or higher above the ground, the mountains would not have been able to stop it and the bromine would have been transported inland," Nghiem said.

After the researchers found that bromine explosions occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, they could relate their origin to sources on the surface. Their model, tracing air rising from the salty ice, tied the bromine releases to recent changes in Arctic sea ice that have led to a much saltier sea ice surface.

In March 2008, the extent of year-round perennial sea ice eclipsed the 50-year record low set in March 2007, shrinking by 386,100 square miles (one million square kilometers) -- an area the size of Texas and Arizona combined. Seasonal ice, which forms over the winter when seawater freezes, now occupies the space of the lost perennial ice. This younger ice is much saltier than its older counterpart because it has not had time to undergo processes that drain its sea salts. It also contains more frost flowers -- clumps of ice crystals up to four times saltier than ocean waters -- providing more salt sources to fuel bromine releases.

Nghiem said if sea ice continues to be dominated by younger saltier ice, and Arctic extreme cold spells occur more often, bromine explosions are likely to increase in the future.

Nghiem is leading an Arctic field campaign this month that will provide new insights into bromine explosions and their impacts. NASA's Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) involves international contributions by more than 20 organizations. The new studies will complement those of a previously conducted NASA field campaign, Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), which is providing scientists with valuable data for studies of bromine.

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How Communication Influences SEO

Search Engine Optimization is one process that influences the position of a website in the search engines and the ideas we use to get it done is kept fresh with necessary updation. Every single SEO strategy is just a part but, when you try concentration on one and let go others, it means that you are missing the bigger picture.

We keep stressing on a few factors like quality content or latent semantic indexing for getting a website optimized properly and the ultimate aim behind it is to communicate well with the visitors or the potential customers. When you have a website with quality expert grade content and related products that interests the visitors, it means that you website is all set to be ranked pretty well.

Communication is one simple idea that is being followed by us for ages but, we still have problems in making effective communication. The main problem lies in encoding an idea or a message in a format that is easily understood by the other person.

As internet acts as the most influential intermediate between people these days we are in a position to use it as a platform to efficiently communicate to prospective customers. We know that search engines are not our intended receivers but we are supposed to satisfy this intermediary so that our message can reach the target. Search engines are frequently being rationalized so that they become more capable of decoding the meaning of our web pages and at the same time decode the search queries of the users so that they can play their role effectively by giving appropriate search results.

Here, our job as a communicator is to make sure that we keep our web pages easy for Search Engines to understand as well as user friendly. If we are capable of sending the right format of message that is clear-cut for the search Engines to grab, it means that you have done your job. Sounds easy, right? Anyway, hope you don’t miss to deal with the final part of this communication problem… Search Engines are not our final receivers and you will have to put necessary efforts to make people click on to your page, and make business with you.

Now, what is the use of being in the first few ranks and don’t communicate well with your visitors? You don’t get what you want- The business! When you are successful with the first part, you are half way there. Only when your website is presentable and looks like it has got stuff in it, you are through with the final part.  Your job as a webmaster is to provide enough support content about your product or process so that your customers feel it’s worth buying from you when there are thousands of providers out there. When you want business, you will have to build confidence in your customers about what you sell.

Getting feedbacks and keeping in touch will help you a lot in building your business whilst pulling it to the next level. When you get a sale it means you are successful about communicating with one person but, what about the others who had visited your page and had not made business with you.  This ring a bell saying that your way of communication has a few hitches and the best way to prevail over this is to follow the feedback method.

When you feel that your website is well equipped with what customers need and the one thing that you are missing is an effective communication with the search engines, you should get it done by the professionals. Searchenginegenie is one qualified professional firm that you can rely for expert Search Engine optimization, promotion, marketing and ranking solutions.

NASA's Chandra Finds Fastest Wind From Stellar-Mass Black Hole

Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have clocked the fastest wind yet discovered blowing off a disk around a stellar-mass black hole. This result has important implications for understanding how this type of black hole behaves.

The record-breaking wind is moving about 20 million mph, or about 3 percent of the speed of light. This is nearly 10 times faster than had ever been seen from a stellar-mass black hole.

Stellar-mass black holes are born when extremely massive stars collapse. They typically weigh between five and 10 times the mass of the sun. The stellar-mass black hole powering this super wind is known as IGR J17091-3624, or IGR J17091 for short.

"This is like the cosmic equivalent of winds from a category five hurricane," said Ashley King from the University of Michigan, lead author of the study published in the Feb. 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We weren't expecting to see such powerful winds from a black hole like this."

The wind speed in IGR J17091 matches some of the fastest winds generated by supermassive black holes, objects millions or billions of times more massive.

"It's a surprise this small black hole is able to muster the wind speeds we typically only see in the giant black holes," said co-author Jon M. Miller, also from the University of Michigan. "In other words, this black hole is performing well above its weight class."

Another unanticipated finding is that the wind, which comes from a disk of gas surrounding the black hole, may be carrying away more material than the black hole is capturing.

"Contrary to the popular perception of black holes pulling in all of the material that gets close, we estimate up to 95 percent of the matter in the disk around IGR J17091 is expelled by the wind," King said.

Unlike winds from hurricanes on Earth, the wind from IGR J17091 is blowing in many different directions. This pattern also distinguishes it from a jet, where material flows in highly focused beams perpendicular to the disk, often at nearly the speed of light.

Simultaneous observations made with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Expanded Very Large Array showed a radio jet from the black hole was not present when the ultra-fast wind was seen, although a radio jet is seen at other times. This agrees with observations of other stellar-mass black holes, providing further evidence the production of winds can stifle jets.

The high speed for the wind was estimated from a spectrum made by Chandra in 2011. Ions emit and absorb distinct features in spectra, which allow scientists to monitor them and their behavior. A Chandra spectrum of iron ions made two months earlier showed no evidence of the high-speed wind, meaning the wind likely turns on and off over time.

Astronomers believe that magnetic fields in the disks of black holes are responsible for producing both winds and jets. The geometry of the magnetic fields and rate at which material falls towards the black hole must influence whether jets or winds are produced.

IGR J17091 is a binary system in which a sun-like star orbits the black hole. It is found in the bulge of the Milky Way galaxy, about 28,000 light years away from Earth.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

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