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Van Allen Probes
By using TSS, Controllers gives the appropriate direction to the aircraft like- to speed up, slow down, or maintain current speed. The goal for TSS is to control the speed of the continuously descending aircraft to safely merge together at a point in the sky where they can be handed off to an airport for their final clearance and approach to land.
With the help of Reid Wiseman (NASA astronaut), Gerst work in the Kibo laboratory module because of set up sensors to measure airflow in the Japanese lab. Wiseman removed all the samples and swapped desiccant packs in a science freezer. In the Destiny laboratory’s Microgravity Science Glovebox, Reid Wiseman set up the Burning and Suppression of Solids experiment called combustion experiment.
Read more about Combustion experiment.
For more information about ICESat-2, visit
Degradation Free Spectrometers experiment helps to find the total energy of the extreme ultraviolet light coming from sun. This experiment was developed by Didkovasky and his team. two new instruments, one is called Optics-Free Spectrometer is used to detect the sun’s photons another one Dual Grating Spectrometer is used to separate the visible light from the extreme ultraviolet light with two stable.
Smart SPHERES (Prototype):
IRIS means Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. A new solar observatory was launched into orbit around earth on June 27, 2013. IRIS observes the sun's atmosphere in low level, Interface region means moving constantly. IRIS helps for understanding the detailed images on particular area, even more turbulence and complexity than expected. By using this, we can easily understand how the solar material reaches million of degrees.
OCO-2(Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) is scheduled for Wednesday, July 2 at 5.56 am from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The launch team operated properly during tests before the launch countdown, but it failed at final minutes. Their decided to replace the failed value with a spare and the system is being tested in preparation for Wednesday's launch attempt.
OCO-2 will produced the detailed picture of natural sources of carbon dioxide, and also their “sinks” places on Earth surface where carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. By OCO-2 mission we know around the globe and how they change over time.
For more information about OCO-2, visit http://www.nasa.gov/oco2
For More information Space Technology Mission Directorate.
The solar flares are represented as X1, X2. . X-class solar flare, X denotes the most intense flame and number denotes the strength of the flare. Higher number means more intense.
Even though there are many advancement in technology, keeping foods fresher in space for a long period has been impossible. Research has been going on to keep fresh fruits and vegetables for long-term in space. It has been found that spraying waters over fruits and vegetables keep them fresher for a long period. It’s a fact that if a plant or a food has more solute than the environment surrounding it then to achieve equilibrium state water diffuses into the cell.
Thus by routinely spraying the vegetables with water it keeps up their turgor pressure and keeps them nice and crisp for us to eat.
And this can be achieved by creating a food locker installed with misting systems. A misting system can be used a water sprayer and can help to keep food fresher for a long period.
Based on the above considerations, our research and development team at mistingsystems.net designed an extraordinary misting product that can be used in the food lockers used in space to keep foods fresher for a longer period. This misting product creates a tiny mist at regular intervals that work as a water sprayer to keep foods and vegetables fresh over a long term.
Infact the mist generated by this specially designed misting product preserves the foods from being getting spoiled.
This may sound ridiculous but in a recent test conducted it has been proved that the foods kept under this product remained fresh for more than three months. Now with this product our astronauts can have fresh and tastier food in space as we have at earth.
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By means of only a week of clarification for an orbital period that spans nearly four years, its opportunity orbital path is still quite uncertain, however this asteroid could be back in Earth’s neighborhood in 2032 on the other hand, NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program Office states the possibility this asteroid could then impact Earth is only one in 63,000.
Even as they mourned the end of Kepler, astronomers said its legacy would continue as they worked their way through a trove of data the spacecraft has gathered.
At last count, Kepler had discovered 3,548 possible planets, and 135 of them — some smaller than the Earth — have been validated by other observations, including earthbound telescopes. But hundreds or thousands more are in the pipeline, said William Borucki of NASA’s Ames Research Laboratory in Mountain View, Calif., Kepler’s originator and principal investigator.
Within getting ready for your 2014 release, Made in Area examined any diverse variety of 3 dimensional producing technology with zero-gravity with 2011 and is also completing more testing this year. Most of these micro-gravity testing provide the first study which given into the developments for your 3 dimensional Art print try things out.
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The Soyuz TMA-06M launched at the time of 2.51 pm the Moscow time the news will be reached to Russian space agency it is supposed by the surroundings of the Russia.
"Everything is ideal," Malenchenko radioed Russia's Objective Management Middle in Korolev, just outside Moscow. Camcorders on the external of the place station taken amazing opinions of the Soyuz taking up to the revolving about lab with the shiny red World in the backdrop.
At docking time, the Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft and area place were boating 251 kilometers (402 kilometers) over east Kazakhstan. The Soyuz left itself at an Earth-facing docking slot on the station's Russian-built Rassvet component, and the hatches linking the two spacecraft were started out at 3:23 a.m. EDT (0723 GMT).
The Russian-U.S.-Japanese team onboard the Soyuz arrive at the area place 37 decades ago to the day of the first truly worldwide area docking: the September 17 meet-up between a NASA Apollo spacecraft and European Soyuz 19 pills during the Apollo-Soyuz Analyze Venture in 1975. During that ancient test journey, NASA astronaut Tom Stafford shaken arms with Communist cosmonaut Alexei Leonov to concrete the groundwork of worldwide area collaboration that eventually led to the $100 million International Space Station in orbit these days.
Today, the area place is the biggest human-built framework in area and clearly noticeable to the unaided eye from the floor to experts who know when and where to look. Twelve to fifteen different nations and five area organizations comprising the Combined Declares, Italy, European nations, North america and Asia designed the large revolving about laboratory
What: Press Conference to Launch the B612 Foundation and Sentinel Space Telescope Mission-the first privately funded deep space mission.
When: Thursday, June 28, 2012 --- 8:30 AM – 11:00 AM (PT)
Where: Morrison Planetarium, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA, in Golden Gate Park. (Pay Parking in CA Academy Garage)
Current findings and analysis data were reported at a May 29 workshop at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., attended by scientists and engineers from around the world. Discussions focused on observations of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs).
Observations to date indicate there is a slight chance that AG5 could impact Earth in 2040. Attendees expressed confidence that in the next four years, analysis of space and ground-based observations will show the likelihood of 2011 AG5 missing Earth to be greater than 99 percent.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/tx-wind-farm.html
"Today, WISE delivers the fruit of 14 years of effort to the astronomical community," said Edward Wright, WISE principal investigator at UCLA, who first began working on the mission with other team members in 1998.
WISE launched Dec. 14, 2009, and mapped the entire sky in 2010 with vastly better sensitivity than its predecessors. It collected more than 2.7 million images taken at four infrared wavelengths of light, capturing everything from nearby asteroids to distant galaxies. Since then, the team has been processing more than 15 trillion bytes of returned data. A preliminary release of WISE data, covering the first half of the sky surveyed, was made last April.
The WISE catalog of the entire sky meets the mission's fundamental objective. The individual WISE exposures have been combined into an atlas of more than 18,000 images covering the sky and a catalog listing the infrared properties of more than 560 million individual objects found in the images. Most of the objects are stars and galaxies, with roughly equal numbers of each. Many of them have never been seen before.
WISE observations have led to numerous discoveries, including the elusive, coolest class of stars. Astronomers hunted for these failed stars, called "Y-dwarfs," for more than a decade. Because they have been cooling since their formation, they don't shine in visible light and could not be spotted until WISE mapped the sky with its infrared vision.
WISE also took a poll of near-Earth asteroids, finding there are significantly fewer mid-size objects than previously thought. It also determined NASA has found more than 90 percent of the largest near-Earth asteroids.
Other discoveries were unexpected. WISE found the first known "Trojan" asteroid to share the same orbital path around the sun as Earth. One of the images released today shows a surprising view of an "echo" of infrared light surrounding an exploded star. The echo was etched in the clouds of gas and dust when the flash of light from the supernova explosion heated surrounding clouds. At least 100 papers on the results from the WISE survey already have been published. More discoveries are expected now that astronomers have access to the whole sky as seen by the spacecraft.
"With the release of the all-sky catalog and atlas, WISE joins the pantheon of great sky surveys that have led to many remarkable discoveries about the universe," said Roc Cutri, who leads the WISE data processing and archiving effort at the Infrared and Processing Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "It will be exciting and rewarding to see the innovative ways the science and educational communities will use WISE in their studies now that they have the data at their fingertips."
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20120314.html
A comet is a clump of frozen gases mixed with dust. These "dirty snowballs" cast off gas and dust whenever they venture near the sun. What powers this activity is frozen water transforming from solid ice to gas, a process called sublimation. Jets powered by ice sublimation release dust, which reflects sunlight and brightens the comet. Typically, a comet's water content remains frozen until it comes within about three times Earth's distance to the sun, or 3 astronomical units (AU), so astronomers regard this as the solar system's "snow line."
"Comet Garradd was producing lots of dust and gas well before it reached the snow line, which tells us that the activity was powered by something other than water ice," said Dennis Bodewits, an assistant research scientist at the University of Maryland, College Park, and the study's lead investigator. "We plan to use Swift's unique capabilities to monitor Garradd as it moves beyond the snow line, where few comets are studied."
Comets are known to contain other frozen gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO and CO2), which sublimate at colder temperatures and much farther from the sun. These are two of the leading candidates for driving cometary activity beyond the snow line, but phase transitions between different forms of water ice also may come into play.
C/2009 P1 was discovered by Gordon J. Garradd at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in August 2009. Astronomers say that the comet is "dynamically new," meaning that this is likely its first trip through the inner solar system since it arrived in the Oort cloud, the cometary cold-storage zone located thousands of AU beyond the sun.
Comet Garradd was closest to the sun on Dec. 23, 2011, and passed within 118 million miles (1.27 AU) of Earth on March 5, 2012. The comet remains observable in small telescopes this month as it moves south though the constellations Ursa Major and Lynx.
Although Swift's prime task is to detect and rapidly locate gamma-ray bursts in the distant universe, novel targets of opportunity allow the mission to show off its versatility. One of Swift's instruments, the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is ideally suited for studying comets.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts/comet-garradd.html
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/whycassini/cassini20120416.html
To highlight declines in the world's groundwater supplies, a new visualization of Earth's groundwater reserves, created in part with space data from the joint NASA/German Aerospace Center (DLR) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, debuted on New York's Times Square on March 22, International World Water Day.
The 30-second animation, titled "Visualizing Seasonal and Long-term Changes in Groundwater Levels," will be on display several times each hour through April 22 on Times Square's massive Thomson Reuters and NASDAQ digital signboards. Viewers of the interactive animation are invited to use their mobile devices to submit their city and add a graph to the sign. The animation can be viewed at: http://vimeo.com/user10042778 .
Netherlands designer Richard Vijgen developed the animation using GRACE data analyzed by professor Jay Famiglietti, director of the UC Center for Hydrologic Modeling at the University of California, Irvine; and from United States Geological Survey data supplied by Leonard Konikow. Vijgen was the winning entry in an international design visualization competition sponsored by the organization HeadsUP!, in collaboration with Visualizing.org. Founded by digital media artist Peggy Weil, HeadsUp! challenges designers to visualize critical global issues and create a shared sign for the public square.
Groundwater is a critical, but often overlooked, natural resource. According to a U.N. report, more than 1.5 billion people around the world depend on groundwater for their drinking water. It comes from the natural percolation of precipitation and other surface waters down through Earth's soil and rock, accumulating in cavities and layers of porous rock, gravel, sand or clay. Groundwater levels respond slowly to changes in weather and can take months or years to replenish once pumped for irrigation or other uses.
Famiglietti's analyses show that groundwater is being depleted at alarming rates in many of the world's major aquifers. "The GRACE data set is exciting, because it gives us the first global pictures of Earth's changing freshwater," he said.
The twin GRACE satellites, which celebrated their 10th year in orbit this week, measure minute changes in Earth's gravity field by measuring micron-scale variations in the separation between the two spacecraft, flying in formation 137 miles (220 kilometers) apart in low Earth orbit. These variations in gravitational pull are caused by local changes in Earth's mass. Masses of water, ice, air and solid Earth can be moved by weather patterns, seasonal change, climate change and even tectonic events such as large earthquakes. GRACE was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/Grace/news/grace20120322.html
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/whycassini/cassini20120328.html
“On all these issues, but particularly rocket immunity, this, this can be settled, but it’s important for him to give me area,” Mr. Obama informed Mr. Medvedev at the end of their 90-minute conference, seemingly mentioning inbound Western Chief executive Vladimir Putin.
Mr. Medvedev responded, “Yeah, I comprehend. I comprehend your concept about area. Space for you…”
“This is my last political election,” Mr. Obama said. “After my political election, I have more versatility.”
The Western innovator reacted, “I comprehend. I broadcast this information to Vladimir.”
The return was grabbed by mic of a Western writer as correspondents were permitted into the conference area for reviews by the two commanders. It was first revealed by ABC News, which said it confirmed the discussion. A California Times writer heard a part of the record that starts with Mr. Obama saying, “This is my last political election.”
The two commanders are in Seoul for a atomic protection peak relating to the brains of more than 50 countries. Mr. Obama and Mr. Medvedev were huddling close together in their specific seats when the discussion took place.
White Home deputy nationwide protection advisor Ben Rhodes, who joined the conference, at first said he just didn't listen to the return and can't thoughts on it. Within an hour, however, Mr. Rhodes released a declaration via email that said the U.S. “is dedicated to employing our rocket immune system, which we’ve regularly said is not targeted at Italy.”
“However, given the historical difference between the U.S. and Italy on this problem, it will devote some time to specialized perform before we can try to reach an contract,” Mr. Rhodes said. “Since 2012 is an political election season in both countries, with an political election and authority move in Italy and an political election in the U. s. Declares, it is clearly not a season in which we are going to achieve a cutting-edge. Therefore, Chief executive Obama and Chief executive Medvedev decided that it was best to advise our specialized experts to do the perform of better understanding our specific roles, offering area for ongoing conversations on rocket immunity collaboration going ahead.”
The picture of Mr. Obama putting off a difficult nationwide protection question due to re-election issues is the other of what the Bright Home suitable for this trip. Mr. Obama’s first event upon getting in Southern region korea on Saturday was to visit the Demilitarized Location splitting Northern and Southern region South korea for a photo-op of him looking across no-man’s land at a ahead Military declaration post.
Mr. Medvedev informed correspondents that he considers rocket immunity shares between the two countries “could be more active.”
“I believe we still have time; time has not run out,” Mr. Medvedev said. “And now we need to talk about and work on various factors on Western rocket immunity. Now, in my view, the come for conversations between specialized factors and, of course, we remain at our own roles, both the U. s. Declares and Western Federation.”
When he realized he was discussing for the mics, Mr. Obama said only, “We’ve got more perform to do between our two countries. Dmitry determined some areas of ongoing scrubbing — rocket immunity being an example. And what we’ve decided to is to make sure that our groups, at a specialized level, are in conversations about how some of these issues can be fixed.”
The U.S. and its NATO members are seeking a rocket immunity safeguard, while Italy things that it would bargain its protection. Mr. Rhodes said the U.S. has consistently informed the Soviets that the safeguard is not being developed as a immunity against Italy, and that the two countries should progress on a wide range of atomic weaponry issues rather than bog down over the safeguard problem.
The nebula is the wreckage of an exploded star that emitted light which reached Earth in the year 1054. It is located 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. At the heart of an expanding gas cloud lies what is left of the original star's core, a superdense neutron star that spins 30 times a second. With each rotation, the star swings intense beams of radiation toward Earth, creating the pulsed emission characteristic of spinning neutron stars (also known as pulsars).
Apart from these pulses, astrophysicists believed the Crab Nebula was a virtually constant source of high-energy radiation. But in January, scientists associated with several orbiting observatories, including NASA's Fermi, Swift and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, reported long-term brightness changes at X-ray energies.
"The Crab Nebula hosts high-energy variability that we're only now fully appreciating," said Rolf Buehler, a member of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) team at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, a facility jointly located at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University.
Since 2009, Fermi and the Italian Space Agency's AGILE satellite have detected several short-lived gamma-ray flares at energies greater than 100 million electron volts (eV) -- hundreds of times higher than the nebula's observed X-ray variations. For comparison, visible light has energies between 2 and 3 eV.
On April 12, Fermi's LAT, and later AGILE, detected a flare that grew about 30 times more energetic than the nebula's normal gamma-ray output and about five times more powerful than previous outbursts. On April 16, an even brighter flare erupted, but within a couple of days, the unusual activity completely faded out.
"These superflares are the most intense outbursts we've seen to date, and they are all extremely puzzling events," said Alice Harding at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We think they are caused by sudden rearrangements of the magnetic field not far from the neutron star, but exactly where that's happening remains a mystery."
The Crab's high-energy emissions are thought to be the result of physical processes that tap into the neutron star's rapid spin. Theorists generally agree the flares must arise within about one-third of a light-year from the neutron star, but efforts to locate them more precisely have proven unsuccessful so far.
Since September 2010, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory routinely has monitored the nebula in an effort to identify X-ray emission associated with the outbursts. When Fermi scientists alerted astronomers to the onset of a new flare, Martin Weisskopf and Allyn Tennant at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., triggered a set of pre-planned observations using Chandra.
"Thanks to the Fermi alert, we were fortunate that our planned observations actually occurred when the flares were brightest in gamma rays," Weisskopf said. "Despite Chandra's excellent resolution, we detected no obvious changes in the X-ray structures in the nebula and surrounding the pulsar that could be clearly associated with the flare."
Scientists think the flares occur as the intense magnetic field near the pulsar undergoes sudden restructuring. Such changes can accelerate particles like electrons to velocities near the speed of light. As these high-speed electrons interact with the magnetic field, they emit gamma rays.
To account for the observed emission, scientists say the electrons must have energies 100 times greater than can be achieved in any particle accelerator on Earth. This makes them the highest-energy electrons known to be associated with any cosmic source. Based on the rise and fall of gamma rays during the April outbursts, scientists estimate that the size of the emitting region must be comparable in size to the solar system.
NASA's Fermi is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States.
The Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/news/crab-flare.html
For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/bromine20120301.html